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Detection and classification of rainfall in South America using satellite images and machine learning techniques

F Andelsman, S Masuelli, F Tamarit

The study of precipitation is one of the most intriguing areas in atmospheric sciences, with significant implications for our daily lives and climate change projections. This paper explores the estimation of rainfall trends in South American regions using convolutional neural networks (CNNs). The study focuses on the application of Cloud-Net, a CNN-based model with a format similar to an autoencoder, to obtain qualitative estimates of precipitation patterns. The employed loss functions, Categorical Cross Entropy and Categorical Focal Loss, address the challenges of classifying minority categories in unbalanced data. Regional analysis was conducted, identifying days with high rainfall intensity and the predominant intensities in 25 regions. The CNN model's performance was compared with the XGBoost algorithm, showing excellent results for extreme rainfall categories and challenging intermediate categories. Furthermore, a comparison was made with Quantitative Precipitation Estimation (QPE) data and ground measurements from rain gauges. While the CNN model provided a valuable qualitative estimate of precipitation trends, achieving precise quantitative estimation would require an extensive data set of in-situ measurements. Overall, this research demonstrates the potential of CNNs for estimating rainfall trends and understanding precipitation patterns in South American regions. The findings offer valuable insights for further applications in meteorology and environmental studies.


B(E2) values of 186W and 186Os isobar through interacting Boson model-I

A Salam, I Hossain, Huda H. Kassim, Ahmed Saleh, A H H Alghanmi, Fadhil I Sharrad, N Aldahan

In this study, we applied the Interacting Boson Model (IBM-I) to compute the electric reduced transition probabilities B(E2)¯ of even-even neutron rich 186W and 186Os isobar. The ratio R4/2 = /  has also been calculated of those isobars and the SU(3) symmetry for those isobars have been reported. The  and  indicate the energy level of  and  respectively. We have described the strength of B(E2) in W.u. for 186W and 186Os isobars of some of the low-lying quadrupole collective states in contrast to obtainable measured data. The electric reduced transition probabilities B(E2)¯ from yrast state gamma transition from   , , , ,  and  states of 186W and 186Os isobar have been compared with obtainable measured data. The accompanying quadrupole moments and deformation parameters of those isobars were also calculated. Furthermore, we have deliberated systematic strength of B(E2), intrinsic quadrupole moments and deformation parameters of even-even 186W and 186Os isobars. The data from these calculations are in good matching with the obtainable measured data. The IBM-I model for the strength of B(E2) has been systematically deduced in SU(3) limit for a few yrasts states transitions in 186W and 186Os isobar.